Easter Monday
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One of two flags flown over the GPO during the Rising
Main article: First Day of the Easter Rising
Early on Monday morning, April 24, 1916, roughly 1,200 Volunteers and Citizen Army members took over strongpoints in Dublin city centre. A joint force of about 400 Volunteers and Citizen Army gathered at Liberty Hall under the command of Commandant James Connolly.
The rebel headquarters was located at the
General Post Office (GPO) where James Connolly, overall military commander and four other members of the Military Council: Patrick Pearse, Tom Clarke, Seán Mac Dermott and Joseph Plunkett were located.[32] After occupying the Post Office, the Volunteers hoisted two republican flags and Pearse read a Proclamation of the Republic[33]
Elsewhere, rebel forces took up positions at the
Four Courts, the centre of the Irish legal establishment, at Jacob′s Biscuit Factory and Boland′s Mill and at the hospital complex at South Dublin Union and the adjoining Distillery at Marrowbone Lane. Another contingent, under Michal Mallin, dug in on St. Stephen's Green.[34]
However, although it was lightly guarded, Volunteer and Citizen Army forces under Seán Connolly failed to take
Dublin Castle, the centre of British rule in Ireland, shooting dead a police sentry and overpowering the soldiers in the guardroom, but failing to press home the attack. The Under-secretary, Sir Matthew Nathan, was alerted by the shots and helped close the castle gates.[35] The rebels occupied the Dublin City Hall and adjacent buildings.[36] They also failed to take Trinity College, which was located in the heart of the city centre and which was defended by only a handful of armed, unionist students.[37] At midday a small team of Volunteers and Fianna members attacked the Magazine Fort in the Phoenix Park and disarmed the guards, with the intent to seize weapons and blow up the building as a signal that the rising had begun. They set explosives but failed to obtain any arms.[38]
In at least two incidents, at Jacobs
[39] and Stephens Green,[40] the Volunteers and Citizen Army shot dead civilians who were trying to attack them or dismantle their barricades. Elsewhere, they hit civilians with their rifle butts to drive them off.[41]
The British military were caught totally unprepared by the rebellion and their response of the first day was generally un-coordinated. Two troops of British cavalry, one at the Four Courts, the other on O'Connell Street, sent out to investigate what was happening, took fire and casualties from rebel forces
[42][43] On Mount Street, a group of reserve volunteer soldiers, stumbled upon the rebel position and four were killed before they reached Beggars Bush barracks.[44]
The only substantial combat of the first day of the Rising took place at the South Dublin Union where a piquet from the
Royal Irish Regiment, encountered an outpost of Éamonn Ceannt′s force at the north-western corner of the South Dublin Union. The British troops, after taking some casualties, managed to regroup and launch several assaults on the position before they forced their way inside and the small rebel force in the tin huts at the eastern end of the Union surrendered.[45] However, the Union complex as a whole remained in rebel hands.
Three of the unarmed
Dublin Metropolitan Police were shot dead on the first day of the Rising and their Commissioner pulled them off the streets. Partly as result of the withdrawal of the police, a wave of looting broke out in the city centre, especially in the O'Connell Street area. A total of 425 people were arrested after the Rising for looting.[46]
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Tuesday to Saturday
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A British armoured truck, hastily built from the smokeboxes of several steam locomotives at Inchicore railway works[47]
Lord Wimborne, the Lord Lieutenant, declared martial law on Tuesday evening and handed over civil power to Brigadier-General W. H. M. Lowe. British forces initially put their efforts into securing the approaches to Dublin Castle and isolating the rebel headquarters, which they believed was in Liberty Hall. The British commander, Lowe, worked slowly, unsure of the size of the force he was up against, and with only 1,269 troops in the city when he arrived from the Curragh Camp in the early hours of Tuesday 25 April. City Hall was taken from the rebel unit that had attacked Dublin Castle on Tuesday morning.[48][49]
The rebels had failed to take either of Dublin′s two main train stations or either of its ports, at Dublin Port and Kingstown. As a result, during the following week, the British were able to bring in thousands of reinforcements from England and from their garrisons at
the Curragh and Belfast. By the end of the week, British strength stood at over 16,000 men.[49][50] Their firepower was provided by field artillery summoned from their garrison at Athlone which they positioned on the northside of the city at Phibsborough and at Trinity College, and by the patrol vessel Helga, which sailed up the Liffey, having been summoned from the port at Kingstown. On Wednesday, 26 April, the guns at Trinity College and Helga shelled Liberty Hall, and the Trinity College guns then began firing at rebel positions, first at Boland′s Mill and then in O'Connell Street.[49]
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Combat
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"Birth of the Irish Republic" by Walter Paget, depicting the GPO during the shelling
The principal rebel positions at the GPO, the Four Courts, Jacob′s Factory and Boland′s Mill saw little combat. The British surrounded and bombarded them rather than assault them directly. One Volunteer in the GPO recalled, "we did practically no shooting as there was no target".[51] Similarly, the rebel position at St Stephen's Green, held by the Citizen Army under Michael Mallin, was made untenable after the British placed snipers and machine guns in the Shelbourne Hotel and surrounding buildings. As a result, Mallin′s men retreated to the Royal College of Surgeons building where they remained for the rest of the week. However, where the insurgents dominated the routes by which the British tried to funnel reinforcements into the city, there was fierce fighting.
Reinforcements were sent to Dublin from England, and disembarked at Kingstown on the morning of 26 April. Heavy fighting occurred at the rebel-held positions around the
Grand Canal as these troops advanced towards Dublin. The Sherwood Foresters were repeatedly caught in a cross-fire trying to cross the canal at Mount Street. Seventeen Volunteers were able to severely disrupt the British advance, killing or wounding 240 men.[52] Despite there being alternative routes across the canal nearby, General Lowe ordered repeated frontal assaults on the Mount Street position.[53] The British eventually took the position, which had not been reinforced by the nearby rebel garrison at Boland's Mills, on Thursday [54] but the fighting there inflicted up to two thirds of their casualties for the entire week for a cost of just four dead Volunteers.[55]
The rebel position at the South Dublin Union (site of the present day
St. James's Hospital) and Marrowbone Lane, further west along the canal, also inflicted heavy losses on British troops. The South Dublin Union was a large complex of buildings and there was vicious fighting around and inside the buildings. Cathal Brugha, a rebel officer, distinguished himself in this action and was badly wounded. By the end of the week, the British had taken some of the buildings in the Union, but others remained in rebel hands.[56] British troops also took casualties in unsuccessful frontal assaults on the Marrowbone Lane Distillery.[57]
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Placements of Rebel forces and British troops around the River Liffey in Dublin
The third major scene of combat during the week was at North King Street, behind the Four Courts, where the British, on Thursday, tried to take a well-barricaded rebel position. By the time of the rebel headquarter′s surrender, the South Staffordshire Regiment under Colonel Taylor had advanced only 150 yd (140 m) down the street at a cost of 11 dead and 28 wounded.[58] The enraged troops broke into the houses along the street and shot or bayonetted 15 male civilians whom they accused of being rebel fighters.[59]
Elsewhere, at
Portobello Barracks, an officer named Bowen Colthurst summarily executed six civilians, including the pacifist nationalist activist, Francis Sheehy-Skeffington.[60] These instances of British troops killing Irish civilians would later be highly controversial in Ireland.
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Surrender
The headquarters garrison at the GPO, after days of shelling, was forced to abandon their headquarters when fire caused by the shells spread to the GPO. Connolly had been incapacitated by a bullet wound to the ankle and has passed command on to Pearse. The O'Rahilly was killed in a sortie from the GPO. They tunnelled through the walls of the neighbouring buildings in order to evacuate the Post Office without coming under fire and took up a new position in 16 Moore Street. On Saturday 29 April, from this new headquarters, after realizing that they could not break out of this position without further loss of civilian life, Pearse issued an order for all companies to surrender.[61] Pearse surrendered unconditionally to Brigadier-General Lowe. The surrender document read:
"In order to prevent the further slaughter of Dublin citizens, and in the hope of saving the lives of our followers now surrounded and hopelessly outnumbered, the members of the Provisional Government present at headquarters have agreed to an unconditional surrender, and the commandants of the various districts in the City and County will order their commands to lay down arms."[62]
The GPO was the only major rebel post to be physically taken during the week. The others surrendered only after Pearse's surrender order, carried by nurse named Elizabeth O'Farrell, reached them.[63] Sporadic fighting therefore continued until Sunday, when word of the surrender was got to the other rebel garrisons.[64] Command of British forces had passed from Lowe to General John Maxwell, who arrived in Dublin just in time to take the surrender. Maxwell was made temporary military governor of Ireland.[65]
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The Rising outside Dublin
Irish Volunteer units mobilised on Easter Sunday in several places outside of Dublin, but due to Eoin MacNeill′s countermanding order, most of them returned home without fighting. In addition, due to the interception of the German arms aboard the Aud, the provincial Volunteer units were very poorly armed.
In the south, around 1,200 Volunteers mustered in
Cork, under Tomás Mac Curtain on the Sunday, but they dispersed after receiving nine contradictory orders by dispatch from the Volunteer leadership in Dublin. Much to the anger of many Volunteers, MacCurtain, under pressure from Catholic clergy, agreed to surrender his men′s arms to the British on Wednesday.[66] The only violence in Cork occurred when the Kent brothers resisted arrest by the RIC, shooting one. One brother was killed in the shootout and another later executed.[67]
Similarly, in the north, several Volunteer companies were mobilised at
Coalisland in County Tyrone including 132 men from Belfast led by IRB President Dennis McCullough. However, in part due to the confusion caused by the countermanding order, the Volunteers there dispersed without fighting.[68]
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Ashbourne
The only large scale engagement outside the city of Dublin occurred at Ashbourne, County Meath. The Volunteers′ Dublin Brigade, 5th Battalion (also known as the Fingal Battalion), led by Thomas Ashe and his second in command Richard Mulcahy, composed of some 60 men, mobilised at Swords, where they seized the RIC Barracks and the Post Office. They did the same in the nearby villages of Donabate and Garristown before attacking the RIC barracks at Ashtown[69][70]
During the attack on the barracks, an RIC patrol from
Slane happened upon the firefight — leading to a five-hour gun battle, in which eight RIC constables were killed and 15 wounded. Two Volunteers were also killed and five wounded.[71] One civilian was also mortally wounded.[72] Ashe′s men camped at Kilsalaghan, near Dublin until they received orders to surrender on Saturday.[73]
Volunteer contingents also mobilised nearby in counties Meath and Louth, but proved unable to link up with the North Dublin unit until after it had surrendered. In
County Louth, Volunteers shot dead an RIC man near the village of Castlebellingham on 24 April, in an incident in which 15 RIC men were also taken prisoner.[69][74]
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Enniscorthy
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Irish War News, produced during the Rising
In County Wexford, some 100 Volunteers took over Enniscorthy on Thursday 27 April until the following Sunday.[69] The made a brief and unsuccessful attack on the RIC barracks, but unable to take it, resolved to blockade it instead. During their occupation of the town, they made such gestures as flying the tricolour over the Atheneum theatre, which they had made their headquarters, and parading uniformed in the streets.[75]
A small party set off for Dublin, but turned back when they met a train full of British troops (part of a 1,000-strong force) on their way to Enniscorthy. On Saturday, two Volunteer leaders were escorted by the British to
Arbour Hill Prison, where Pearse ordered them to surrender.[76]
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Galway
In the west, Liam Mellows led 600-700 Volunteers in abortive attacks on several police stations, at Oranmore and Clarinbridge in County Galway. There was also a skirmish at Carnmore in which two RIC men were killed. However, his men were poorly-armed, with only 25 rifles and 300 shotguns, many of them being equipped only with pikes. Toward the end of the week, Mellows′ followers were increasingly poorly-fed and heard that large British reinforcements were being sent westwards. In addition, the British cruiser HMS Gloucester arrived in Galway Bay and shelled the fields around Athenry where the rebels were based.[77]
On 29 April, the Volunteers, judging the situation to be hopeless, dispersed from the town of Athenry. Many of these Volunteers were arrested in the period following the rising, while others, including Mellows had to go "on the run" to escape. By the time British reinforcements arrived in the west, the rising there had already disintegrated.
[78]
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Casualties
The British Army reported casualties of 116 dead, 368 wounded and nine missing.[79][80] Sixteen policemen died, and 29 were wounded. Rebel and civilian casualties were 318 dead and 2,217 wounded. The Volunteers and ICA recorded 64 killed in action, but otherwise Irish casualties were not divided into rebels and civilians.[81] All 16 police fatalities and 22 of the British soldiers killed were Irishmen [82] British families came to Dublin Castle in May 1916 to reclaim the bodies and funerals were arranged. British bodies which were not claimed were given military funerals in Grangegorman Military Cemetery.
The majority of the casualties, both killed and wounded, were civilians. Both sides, British and rebel, shot civilians deliberately on occasion when they refused to obey orders such as to stop at checkpoints.
[83] On top of that, there were two instances of British troops killing civilians out of revenge or frustration, at Portobello Barracks, where six were shot and North King Street, where 15 were killed.[84]
However the majority of civilian casualties were killed by
indirect fire from artillery, heavy machine guns and incendiary shells. The British, who used such weapons extensively, therefore seem to have caused most non-combatant deaths. One Royal Irish Regiment officer recalled, "they [British troops] regarded everyone as an enemy and fired at everything that moved".[85]